Wasps & Hornets are dangerous to man because of their ability to inﬂict painful stings. Some people are extremely sensitive to the protein material injected by these insects, and such people may become extremely ill or may even die as a result of being stung only once.
The common wasp species are:
Paper wasps : Some of the most dangerous wasps are “paper-making” wasps. They may be identiﬁed by their habit of folding their wings when at rest, making them seem only half as wide as they are actually. These wasps build nests of @paper-like material.
Polistes wasps : This is probably the most common form of paper wasp, building rather simple nests of only on layer of cells, and commonly seen hanging from
the eaves of houses and beneath.
Hornets : One of the universally recognized wasp nests is a brownish-gray structure resembling a large football. These insects are moderately large with a body
that is basically black and with a face of whitish or yellow appearance.
Yellow jackets : This is the smallest of the paper wasps, about ½” long. The nest is typically underground, and as many as 10, 000 workers may be produced in a colony in a season. Situations are known in which yellow jackets have built extensively within wall voids in concrete block foundations. The workers are unpredictable in their response to humans who approach the nest. The intruder may be ignored or he may be subject to massive assault and stung severely.
Mud daubers : These nests are found commonly in attics where they are plastered against the underside of the roof and other structural timbers. The nests
should be approached with caution.
Bees are robust-bodied and very hairy compared with wasps. Their hind legs are ﬂattened for collecting and transporting pollen. Bees are important pollinators. Honey bees are responsible for more than 80% of the pollination required by most fruits, legumes, and vegetable seed plants as well as many ornamentals that
are grown in our landscapes. Bumble bees are important pollinators of native prairie plants.
Bees feed only on nectar (carbohydrates) and pollen (protein) from ﬂowers. Honey bees sometimes visit trash cans and soft-drink containers to feed on sugary foods.
Honey bees make a series of vertical honey combs made of wax. Their colonies are mostly in manufactured hives but they do occasionally nest in cavities in large trees, voids in building walls, or other protected areas.
Bumble bees use old mice burrows, cavities in buildings, and other locations to make their nests. Like honey bees, bumble bees make cells of wax.
Life Cycle of Bees
Honey bees are perennial insects with colonies that survive more than one year. Honey bees form a cluster when hive temperatures approach 57° F. As the temperature drops, the cluster of bees becomes more compact. Bees inside this mass consume honey and generate heat so that those in the cluster do not
freeze. As long as honey is available in the cluster, a strong colony can withstand temperatures down to -30° F. or lower for extended periods.
Bee Stings :-
Honey bees have barbs on their stinger which remain hooked in the skin. The stinger, which is connected to the digestive system of the bee, is torn out of the abdomen as the bee attempts to ﬂy away. As a result, the bee soon dies. If you are stung by a honey bee, scratch out the stinger (with its attached venom gland)
with your ﬁngernail as soon as possible. Do not try to pull out the stinger between two ﬁngers. Doing so only forces more venom into your skin, causing greater irritation.
Control of Nests
The ﬁrst step in wasp or beckontrol is to correctly identify the insect and locate its nesting site. An experienced pest control service may provide bee control
service or you can use the following information to attempt to control them
Honey bee nests
Honey bees are normally housed in manufactured hives and managed by beekeepers. In some instances wild colonies of honey bees may nest in hollow trees or
in wall voids. Honey bees may become a nuisance in the spring at bird feeders and swimming pools as they forage for water. They seldom, if ever, are a nuisance
in summer or early fall.
Wild colonies can be treated with the same insecticides and methods as described for exposed or concealed wasp nests. Combs inside buildings should be
removed and destroyed to avoid problems with honey-stained damage to walls
and secondary pest problems, such as carpet beetles, and attracting bee swarms in the future. Never use honey or wax from colonies that have been treated with an insecticide. Control of honey bee nests can be challenging. Consider hiring an experienced pest control service if a honey bee job appears too diﬃcult.
Bumble bee nests
When a bumble bee nest is a nuisance, treat it with the same insecticides and methods as described for ground-nesting or concealed wasp nests.
Termites: How to Identify and Control Them
Does termite damage worry you? If so, you are not alone. Every year termites
cause billions of dollars in structural damage, and property owners spend over two billion dollars to treat them. This fact sheet focuses on how you, as a consumer, can identify and help protect your property from termites through eﬀective prevention measures and appropriate use of termite treatments.
How do I Know if I Have Termites?
The ﬁrst step in prevention is to be on the alert for termites. Termites rarely emerge from soil, mud tubes, or food sources through which they are tunneling. Most
people are not aware they have termites until they see a swarm or come across damage during construction. Some of the ways to discover if you have termites are listed below:
• Examine, by probing, exposed wood for hollow spots (using a ﬂathead
screwdriver or similar tool).
• Identify termite swarms (sometimes ant swarms are mistaken as termites).
• front wings longer than the hind wings
• antennae bent at ninety degree angle
• wings are roughly equal in length
• antennae are straight; may droop
The most common form of termite in most of the United States is the native subterranean termite
Other, less common, types of termites include the smaller drywood termite
and the invasive Formosan termite
What are the Diﬀerent Types of Termite Treatments?
Some ways to keep termites out do not involve the application of insecticides. For example:
• One such method is a physical barrier, typically incorporated during
• Steel mesh and sands of particular sizes have been shown to perform
eﬀectively as physical barriers.
• Biological control agents (nematodes and fungi) have demonstrated some
success, particularly in laboratory settings.
Because these methods do not involve the application of an insecticide, EPA does not regulate them.
Before a company can sell or distribute any pesticide in the United States, other than certain minimum risk pesticides, EPA must review studies on the pesticide to determine that it will not pose unreasonable risks to human health or the environment. Once we have made that determination, we will license or register
that pesticide for use in strict accordance with label directions. The pesticides used for the prevention or treatment of termite infestations are called termiticides
and must demonstrate the ability to provide structural protection before we register them. In most cases, termiticide application can only be properly
performed by a trained pest management professional.
Approved treatments include:
• Liquid soil-applied termiticides.
• Termite baits.
• Building materials impregnated with termiticides.
• Wood treatments.
Two common forms of treatment are conventional barrier treatments and termite